Representations and Warranties Insurance in Latin American M&A: A Long-awaited Alternative in the Face of Current Challenges & More Trending News


While representations and warranties insurance coverage (RWI) is usually used in many home private-target M&A offers in the US, the use of RWI in cross-border M&A transactions involving rising markets has lengthy been an up-and-coming development but to completely consolidate, particularly in transactions involving Latin American targets. In current years, RWI has regularly entered the cross-border transactional area and turn out to be an essential danger allocation device in cross-border M&A offers. Historically, RWI was typically mentioned however not often used in Latin American M&A offers, primarily as a result of inadequate market penetration by insurance coverage corporations providing RWI in their portfolios. However, now we have lately noticed a big improve in the frequency in which RWI is used, or no less than out there and severely thought of, in M&A offers in the area.

Dealmakers have been motivated to search out options to conventional post-closing danger allocation in Latin America as a result of of the elevated complexity of offers, the quantity of regulatory or court-mandated transactions and distressed divestments, the elevated sophistication of passive traders which can be unwilling to imagine direct danger and the extra aggressive nature of world public sale processes. Also, in the present atmosphere of social unrest and political instability dealing with the globe and the area, RWI generally is a invaluable device to align events’ pursuits and expectations as to danger allocation, in a way that will not in any other case be doable with out transactional insurance coverage.

The improve in personal equity-led Latin America M&A divestitures has additionally been a driving issue in the rising curiosity in RWI, as a result of it might keep away from potential misalignment between the fund life expectancy of the promoting personal fairness fund, on the one hand, and the acquirer’s expectation as to recourse, indemnification survival intervals and holdback or escrow phrases beneath the buy settlement, on the different hand. As extra region-specific funds attain maturity and the return of capital to their traders turns into imminent, the strain will increase to hunt clear exits the place a promoting fund doesn’t retain important post-closing monetary danger by way of indemnity covenants.

Nonetheless, the use of RWI in Latin American M&A offers continues to be in the early levels. Therefore, aggregated information relating to the use of such device in the area isn’t available and the particular phrases and scope of a RWI coverage are prone to be extremely bespoke. While there isn’t any scarcity of RWI guides for the US, such sources are restricted with respect to Latin America. Notwithstanding, as is the case with many M&A constructs, RWI has been transplanted from US M&A follow into Latin American M&A follow, and the use of RWI ought to be anticipated to comply with US follow and developments, with sure notable variations highlighted in this chapter.

As market penetration by insurance coverage corporations providing transactional insurance coverage in Latin America continues to be creating, the relative value of RWI in Latin American offers ought to typically be anticipated to be larger than that of RWI insurance policies issued in US home transactions as a result of decreased competitors amongst, and restricted danger urge for food from, insurers that at present supply this product in the area. Over the long run, we count on insurer competitors to extend and RWI to be extra broadly out there and cost-efficient in the future, particularly in transactions with much less advanced goal operations for which due diligence efforts might present a better diploma of assurance as to the chance of sudden materials contingencies. This is the case for property in the energy and power area – one of the hottest industries in Latin American M&A in current years.

Against this backdrop, this chapter is meant as an summary of the principal facets that dealmakers ought to consider when contemplating RWI and its implementation in Latin American cross-border M&A. The first part contains an summary of the ‘nuts and bolts’ of RWI, together with the sorts of RWI insurance policies out there; coverage interval, deductible, limits and exclusions; related value; typical underwriting course of; and key facets of the course of to make claims beneath the RWI coverage. The second part focuses on elements which will affect whether or not RWI is accessible for a selected transaction, and the associated value of the coverage. The third part contains reflections on the relative advantages that RWI can supply for each sellers and patrons, and the transaction as a complete. Finally, in the fourth part, we focus on the intersection of RWI and the buy settlement.

‘Nuts and bolts’ of RWI

Types of RWI insurance policies

RWI protects the insured social gathering towards monetary losses ensuing from the breach of representations and warranties (R&Ws) made by the vendor or the goal beneath the buy settlement. There are two sorts of RWI insurance policies, relying on who can be the insured social gathering:

  • a buy-side RWI coverage, which is issued to the purchaser as the insured social gathering, permitting it to hunt cost from the insurer for losses incurred consequently of the breach or inaccuracy of R&Ws made by the vendor or the goal beneath the buy settlement; and
  • a sell-side RWI coverage, which is issued to the vendor as the insured social gathering, permitting it to hunt cost from the insurer for losses incurred consequently of claims introduced by the purchaser towards the vendor for breach or inaccuracy of R&Ws made by the vendor or the goal beneath the buy settlement.

In broad phrases, each buy-side and sell-side RWI obtain the similar final monetary impact, which is to allocate to the insurer the danger of any breach or inaccuracy of the coated R&Ws, inside coverage protection limitations and exclusions. Thus, the danger of any losses derived therefrom is shifted to the insurer and isn’t borne by both vendor or purchaser. The sort of RWI coverage could also be indicative of:

  • the extent to which there can be recourse out there to the purchaser beneath the buy settlement in reference to any insured breach or inaccuracy of the R&Ws; and
  • the allocation of the danger {that a} declare beneath the RWI coverage towards the insurance coverage firm be denied.

On the one hand, buy-side RWI eliminates or considerably narrows the vendor’s indemnity obligations beneath the buy settlement, as the purchaser appears principally to the RWI provider as an alternative of the vendor for restoration in the coated areas. A buy-side RWI coverage could also be issued regardless of whether or not the purchaser has recourse towards the vendor beneath the buy settlement for the coated issues, in addition to the RWI. Absent recourse towards the vendor, the purchaser will completely bear the danger {that a} declare beneath a buy-side RWI coverage be denied by the insurance coverage firm. If the purchaser has recourse towards the vendor, the vendor will seemingly bear such danger to the extent of its indemnification obligations beneath the buy settlement, particularly if the events have agreed that the purchaser should first search restoration from the buy-side RWI and might solely gather from the vendor to the extent it’s unable to recoup beneath the RWI.

On the different hand, sell-side RWI covers the monetary danger of the vendor ensuing from its indemnity obligations contemplated in the buy settlement, because it requires the provider to pay the vendor following a verified cost by the vendor to the purchaser with respect to an indemnity declare. Sell-side RWI insurance policies are subsequently premised on the truth that there’s recourse towards the vendor beneath the buy settlement, and are moot in ‘no recourse deals’. Therefore, the vendor typically bears the danger {that a} declare be denied by the provider beneath a sell-side RWI coverage.

Buy-side RWI insurance policies are overwhelmingly used greater than sell-side RWI insurance policies, amongst different causes, as a result of contingencies recognized by the insured social gathering are sometimes excluded from protection beneath RWI insurance policies (see ‘Exclusions’, under). Considering that the purchaser is much less prone to remember of contingencies of the goal enterprise than the vendor, buy-side RWI insurance policies are anticipated to ivolve a extra slender vary of excluded contingencies as a result of data of the insured social gathering. Also, as talked about above, sell-side RWI insurance policies are moot in no recourse offers. Not surprisingly, based on a current market survey by the American Bar Association on private-target US M&A offers (the ABA 2021 Survey), 95 per cent of the transactions in which RWI was used from 2018 to the first quarter of 2021 included a buy-side RWI coverage.


The principal value elements of RWI are the premium, the dealer charge, the underwriting charge and taxes payable on the coverage.

The premium is a one-time cost to the provider, often expressed as a proportion of the RWI coverage protection restrict. Premiums in the US sometimes vary between 2.5 per cent and 4 per cent of the coverage restrict. However, as beforehand famous, prices related to RWI issued in Latin American offers are larger than in the US as a result of decreased penetration and competitors amongst insurers in the related markets. Although there isn’t any aggregated information for RWI in the area, premiums in Latin American offers ought to be anticipated to be above 4 per cent of the protection restrict, going over 6 per cent in some circumstances, relying on the circumstances of every transaction and the phrases of the coverage.

The quantity of the premium can be impacted by the phrases of the RWI coverage, the transaction phrases and the particular circumstances of the goal, together with the jurisdiction and {industry} in which it operates, perceived authorized certainty and macroeconomic danger (together with forex danger). Insurance corporations are keen to agree on enhancements to the coverage to cowl some of the excluded gadgets (see ‘Exclusions’, under), for a rise in the premium. Thus, the quantity of the premium in every case will finally rely on the information and circumstances at hand.

RWI insurance policies issued in Latin American offers ought to bear no distinction in value in terms of RWI dealer charges (sometimes ranging in the US in the low tens of hundreds of {dollars} and typically absorbed inside the RWI premium if a coverage is finally certain) and taxes on the coverage (which generally are depending on the registered deal with of the insured social gathering). The insured social gathering is often required to pay an underwriting charge (generally known as a ‘diligence fee’) to the provider to cowl diligence and different prices incurred in the underwriting course of, together with outdoors counsel engaged by the insurer for diligence functions, if any. The underwriting charge sometimes ranges in the US between US$25,000 and US$50,000.

Regardless of whether or not a RWI coverage is buy-side or sell-side, the events can negotiate the allocation of the premium and different RWI prices between purchaser and vendor. In a aggressive sale course of, it isn’t unusual for the vendor to ask the purchaser to cowl all RWI value, together with the full quantity of the premium. However, if the purchaser has extra leverage, it’s often well-advised to request that the vendor assume or share the prices of the RWI, beneath the argument that the RWI is overlaying dangers that might in any other case must be coated by the vendor beneath indemnity provisions in the buy settlement. Pursuant to the ABA 2021 Survey, in offers in which RWI was used in 2020 by way of the first quarter of 2021, the vendor assumed all or half of the RWI prices in no less than 32 per cent of the offers (regardless of 95 per cent of the related insurance policies in that interval being buy-side RWI).


RWI insurance policies embrace a deductible, known as the ‘retention’. In the US, the retention often ranges between 0.5 per cent and 1 per cent of the deal worth, though larger deductibles might apply for smaller transactions or in particular circumstances. The retention in RWI insurance policies issued in Latin American offers typically ranges between 1 per cent and 2 per cent of deal worth. However, the retention could also be larger relying on the related jurisdiction and particular circumstances of the goal enterprise, and might go over 4 per cent of the deal worth in some circumstances. Many RWI insurance policies in the US present for a drop of the retention after a specified interval of time has handed since the coverage is issued, however some carriers is probably not keen to supply such drop of the retention in Latin American offers.

In a aggressive atmosphere, the vendor might require that the purchaser assume the danger under the retention, as could be the case in a no recourse deal. Conversely, when the purchaser has extra leverage, it might require that the vendor present indemnification for breaches of R&Ws under the retention, topic to customary limitations on indemnity, similar to a de minimis quantity, as relevant. Furthermore, if the vendor is responsible for all or some quantity of the losses under the retention and arising from breaches of R&Ws, a purchaser with negotiation leverage might require a holdback or escrow in connection therewith.

Recourse towards the vendor for breach or inaccuracy of the R&Ws coated beneath the RWI (e.g., with respect to all or some quantities under the retention) has the potential of reducing the value of the RWI, in the type of a discount in the premium. Insurance corporations may have extra confidence in the high quality of the R&Ws and in the vendor’s diligence and total course of in granting such R&Ws if purchaser has recourse towards the vendor. Insurance corporations assume that, if the vendor has ‘skin in the game’, it will likely be extra zealous in negotiating the particular wording and related qualifiers of R&Ws and in making applicable disclosures of exceptions thereto. The vendor’s indemnity obligations often don’t must be substantial relative to the deal worth and even the RWI coverage restrict for the insurance coverage firm to have the ability to supply a reduction in the premium, so long as the RWI provider deems such obligations to be sufficient for the vendor’s pursuits to be aligned with these of the insurer when negotiating the related phrases of the buy settlement. According to SRS Acquiom’s 2020 buy-side RWI deal phrases research, indemnity baskets in offers with an recognized buy-side RWI are extra ceaselessly structured as deductibles and not as tipping baskets (69 per cent deductible versus 12 per cent tipping) in comparison with indemnity baskets in offers in which no RWI is recognized (40 per cent deductible versus 53 per cent tipping). The notable shift in the direction of deductible baskets in the presence of RWI evidences a willingness to separate the danger under the retention.

The RWI coverage often doesn’t embrace a de minimis quantity. However, important materiality thresholds in the scope of the purchaser’s due diligence evaluate might immediate sure carriers to extend the retention or, much less market customary, try to incorporate a de minimis quantity in the coverage.

Policy interval

In sell-side RWI insurance policies, topic to a specified most time period, the coverage interval tends to match the survival interval of the vendor’s indemnification obligations beneath the buy settlement, as a result of the insured danger stems from such obligations. In buy-side RWI insurance policies, nevertheless, it’s extra widespread in the US to see a three-year coverage time period for operational and non-fundamental R&Ws and a six-year coverage time period for tax and elementary R&Ws. No mixture comparable information is accessible particularly for RWI insurance policies issued with respect to Latin American offers. The rationale for coverage intervals could also be impacted by the underlying relevant statute of limitations and different issues which can be particular to every underlying jurisdiction. Nonetheless, we might not count on the mixture development on coverage interval to be considerably completely different in Latin American offers from what’s noticed in insurance policies issued for US offers, particularly contemplating that almost all insurers providing RWI in Latin America are based mostly in the US.

Coverage restrict

The whole protection restrict of RWI insurance policies issued with respect to M&A transactions in the US often ranges between 10 and 25 per cent of the deal worth. Most carriers are open to a coverage enhancement to cowl breaches of true elementary representations (i.e., title, organisation, good standing, authorisation and capability) past the basic restrict of the coverage, typically as much as 100 per cent of the deal worth, in alternate for a rise in the premium quantity.

As with different facets of RWI insurance policies issued in respect of M&A offers in Latin America, there are not any statistics available in reference to typical protection limits beneath such insurance policies. Some RWI brokers say that RWI insurance policies issued with respect to Latin American offers have decrease limits, as a proportion of the deal worth, than RWI insurance policies issued in respect of US offers, as a result of restricted RWI provider competitors and urge for food. Others preserve that RWI coverage limits in Latin America are typically larger, as a proportion of the deal worth, as a result of of smaller deal sizes. Still, others consider that the coverage limits in Latin America are similar to these in the US.


RWI typically covers sudden monetary danger derived from breaches of R&Ws. Therefore, RWI isn’t designed or meant to cowl, and doesn’t cowl, breaches of covenants or value adjustment funds. However, protection by way of R&Ws on the underlying material of some covenants could also be obtained beneath RWI. For occasion, the danger of breach of vendor’s interim working covenants typically may be coated not directly, by way of an ‘absence of certain changes’ R&W.

Insurers solely shield towards unknown danger. As is the case in the US and different jurisdictions, RWI insurance policies sometimes don’t cowl breaches of R&Ws derived from recognized or anticipated points, together with these revealed in the diligence course of or recognized in the disclosure schedule.

There are also numerous topic areas that RWI carriers will typically exclude from RWI insurance policies, together with information safety and cyberattack issues, compliance with sure labour and worker advantages legal guidelines (together with on wages and pension issues), sure tax issues (similar to open audits, transaction-related taxes or the capability of the goal or purchaser to, or timeframe in which the goal or purchaser might, utilise internet working losses), product legal responsibility, sure environmental issues (similar to air pollution and dealing with and launch of hazardous supplies), and fraud by the insured social gathering (in the case of buy-side RWI insurance policies, breaches of coated R&Ws that happen as a result of fraud or fraudulent misrepresentation by the vendor are often coated, topic to the insurer’s subrogation proper with respect to any claims involving fraud by the vendor). Additional topic areas that RWI carriers virtually at all times search to exclude for Latin America RWI insurance policies embrace bribery and corruption, cash laundering, and expropriation danger. Separate insurance coverage insurance policies and merchandise could also be out there to cowl some, however not all, of these exclusions.

Among different points, quantifying the underlying dangers of such excluded issues is extraordinarily troublesome for RWI carriers on the foundation of transaction diligence, and though some of the excluded gadgets could also be perceived as having a low chance of occurring, most of the dangers (e.g., anticorruption) have been extra pervasive in Latin America than in different jurisdictions in current occasions. Furthermore, when the danger materialises, it tends to have a extreme and long-lasting detrimental affect not solely on the goal but in addition on the purchaser.

Further, insurers might search to have extra exclusions on a jurisdiction-specific, industry-specific or deal-specific foundation. Such exclusions might embrace specified issues that in the opinion of the insurer weren’t sufficiently reviewed throughout diligence, or gadgets regarding diligence findings.

Depending on how aggressive the M&A course of is, the purchaser might require that the vendor gives indemnification for excluded gadgets beneath the RWI coverage, and might even require an escrow or holdback to ensure liquidity for such dangers.

Underwriting course of

Typically, the insured social gathering (seemingly the purchaser) will interact a RWI coverage dealer. The dealer will then attain out to potential insurers and present them with restricted key data relating to the deal, which is mostly solely disclosed after the insurers signal a customary non-disclosure settlement or joinder to the purchaser’s non-disclosure settlement with the goal or the vendor. The data sometimes shared with the insurers contains the administration presentation or confidential data memorandum, current goal monetary statements, the draft buy settlement, the proposed buy value and the requested protection. Insurers which can be in issuing a coverage for the related deal will then present the dealer with quotes and the dealer will put together a abstract comparability chart of proposed key coverage phrases, together with protection restrict, retention, premium, exclusions, enhancements and areas of required heightened diligence (which can finally end result in extra exclusions). The quotes will sometimes be topic to confirmatory due diligence by the insurer.

Once the potential insured social gathering has chosen a most popular insurer, the insurer might require the execution of a ‘non-binding indication letter’, setting forth the key phrases of the coverage, in addition to cost of the underwriting charge. In aggressive auctions and different circumstances in which the purchaser has not entered into an exclusivity settlement with the vendor or goal with respect to the transaction, a purchaser searching for a RWI coverage could also be required to pay an exclusivity charge to the insurer to proceed with the underwriting. Pre-exclusivity underwriting isn’t quite common and subsequently the exclusivity charge charged by carriers may be materials (e.g., low to mid a whole lot of hundreds of {dollars}), relying on market capability and how a lot competitors and urge for food there may be for the goal enterprise. However, the exclusivity charge is prone to be credited towards the premium if a coverage is issued thereafter.

The insurer would require entry to the information room and a replica of all due diligence studies (together with from outdoors counsel, accounting corporations and different advisers) and a replica of the disclosure schedules, all of that are often expressly supplied on a ‘non-reliance basis.’ Thereafter, the potential insured social gathering and the insurer will (1) maintain an ‘underwriting call’ to debate the standing, scope and findings of the diligence evaluate and different gadgets related to the negotiation of the buy settlement and the scope of the R&Ws (the insurer might comply with up with particular questions after the name), and (2) negotiate and agree on the phrases of the RWI coverage, based mostly on a type supplied by the insurer.

The RWI coverage may be certain previous to signing of the buy settlement or between signing and closing, in every case, efficient as of the closing. Buyers searching for a buy-side RWI are well-advised to safe the phrases of the RWI previous to signing. The buy settlement doesn’t sometimes embrace a situation to closing for the profit of the purchaser on a RWI coverage being really obtained, as a result of it’s in purchaser’s management to safe the coverage previous to signing, assuming RWI is accessible to start with. Further, as mentioned, offers involving RWI typically haven’t any recourse or restricted recourse towards the vendor. Therefore, the purchaser ought to be the social gathering most in confirming the availability and phrases of the RWI (its solely anticipated supply of restoration), previous to executing the definitive agreements. When the phrases of the RWI coverage are agreed previous to the execution of the buy settlement, the purchaser and the insurer will sometimes enter right into a binder of insurance coverage, which can embrace a draft of the coverage as an exhibit thereto and present for the issuance of the coverage upon satisfaction of sure customary situations, together with, amongst different issues:

  • cost of the premium in full;
  • cost of the underwriting charge in full;
  • consummation of the closing beneath the buy settlement;
  • absence of any amendments to the buy settlement that adversely affect the insurer;
  • a certificates from the insured social gathering on the absence of data of any breach of R&W (known as a ‘No Claims Declaration’); and
  • supply to the insurer of an digital copy of the information room and copies of last due diligence studies.

Prior to issuing the coverage at closing, the insurer would require a ‘bring-down call’ with the insured social gathering’s deal staff and third-party advisers on excellent diligence questions and to inquire whether or not there have been any extra diligence findings since the date of the diligence studies supplied to the provider. Absent materially adversarial points, the phrases of the coverage aren’t sometimes revised after that decision or the finalisation of the insurer’s diligence.

The length of the underwriting course of will rely on whether or not the RWI provider is keen and capable of depend on the events’ diligence studies, fairly than require full-blown diligence by its impartial US and native counsel. In the US, the complete course of from engagement of the RWI dealer to a last negotiated RWI coverage can generally be completed in as little as two weeks, assuming no full-blown impartial diligence by the insurer. Some brokers point out that the RWI course of in Latin America is barely a pair of days longer than that for a US coverage, whereas others recommend it might take a further three weeks. Other than presumably taking longer to finish, the course of for a Latin America RWI coverage isn’t any completely different than that for a US coverage.

In a extremely aggressive public sale, the vendor might point out to the bidders that it will likely be offering no indemnity or very restricted indemnity, and encourage them to make use of RWI as the sole supply of restoration. Moreover, in that sort of public sale (particularly in jurisdictions the place availability of RWI isn’t clear or the place there may be uncertainty that it might be out there at cheap value), the vendor is mostly well-advised to interact a dealer early in the course of to verify availability of RWI for the transaction, and pre-package a buy-side RWI coverage that might be introduced to bidders together with different transaction supplies (sometimes throughout Phase II of the public sale). Bidders ought to bear in thoughts that they aren’t required to interact the dealer that has labored with the vendor in pre-packaging the RWI coverage or to buy the RWI coverage from any of the vendor’s proposed carriers. Bidders can, of course, interact a special dealer to survey the market and affirm whether or not higher phrases (together with higher protection or extra environment friendly prices) may be independently obtained. The deserves of taking place this route ought to be fastidiously assessed, contemplating, amongst different issues, (1) time constraints; (2) RWI market depth and chance that different brokers and carriers might supply higher phrases for the specific transaction; and (3) the competitiveness of the public sale, together with whether or not the bidder might put itself at an obstacle in comparison with different bidders which will go along with the pre-packaged dealer, provider and coverage, particularly if recourse towards the vendor in lieu of RWI protection is on the desk, as a result of the vendor might want to educate itself on the phrases and reliability of the bidder’s proposed coverage and provider.

Process to make claims beneath the RWI coverage

RWI carriers often have standardised and comparatively expeditious processes to evaluate claims. Insurers sometimes strategy the declare course of with a way more industrial perspective than sellers might strategy indemnity claims, as a result of at the finish of the day dealing with such claims is inherent to the insurers’ enterprise mannequin. The very last thing an insurer needs is to construct a fame for being unreasonable in the dealing with of claims, as insurers are repeatedly competing for enterprise in future offers, probably involving the insured events making such claims beneath present insurance policies. Insured events who’re repeat gamers in the M&A area must also be cautious of incomes a fame of being troublesome to cope with, as insurers might issue in that fame when assessing the availability and value of future RWI insurance policies issued to these events.

The declare course of is often kicked off by the supply of an preliminary declare discover by the insured social gathering, adopted by the insured social gathering’s evaluation of the breach and incurred loss. Thereafter, the insurer and the insured social gathering will focus on an investigation plan, typically together with a preliminary investigation by the insurer, adopted by data and doc requests. Finally, the insurer will challenge a protection place and negotiations will happen, as wanted. The majority of claims are resolved inside one yr, with roughly 1 / 4 of the claims being resolved inside six months. Claims issued with respect to property in Latin America might take longer, as a result of anticipated decreased familiarity of the carriers with the underlying jurisdictions in comparison with the US. The insured social gathering is usually inspired to be forthcoming with related data required to evaluate the breach of R&W and the loss incurred, relative to the degree of data that it might in any other case share with the vendor in reference to an indemnity declare. The quantity of time it would take to resolve the declare will rely to an incredible extent on data circulate, in addition to the complexity of the declare.

Pursuant to current information from AON on RWI insurance policies issued to AON purchasers, between 18 and 25 per cent of RWI insurance policies issued in the years 2013–2017 resulted in no less than one declare by the insured social gathering beneath the coverage. However, between 2013 and 2019, solely 13 per cent of the claims made with respect to offers with a worth beneath US$100 million resulted in cost of a loss above the retention, with decrease percentages for bigger offers inside such interval. Nonetheless, over 54 per cent of the claims made beneath RWI insurance policies issued to AON purchasers are at present energetic.

Insurability elements

There are a number of elements which will affect the RWI carriers’ urge for food to challenge a RWI coverage and the value thereof. Considering the restricted choices of RWI options in the Latin American M&A area, sellers and patrons ought to search to construction the deal round such elements to extend the chance that RWI could also be obtained and cut back the value at which it might turn out to be out there. Such elements embrace, amongst different issues:

  • a well-regarded final helpful proprietor of the insured social gathering;
  • a classy insured social gathering with a longtime monitor report in M&A, similar to personal fairness funds, ideally based mostly in the US or one other jurisdiction with excessive historic deal circulate;
  • a easy goal enterprise mannequin that isn’t closely regulated;
  • refined counsel and accountants concerned in the transaction, performing a customary due diligence course of, and availability of an information room and US-style detailed due diligence studies from such advisers;
  • an English-language acquisition settlement ruled by US legislation, UK legislation or the legislation of one other jurisdiction with a sturdy physique of case legislation on M&A issues;
  • high-quality phrases and situations beneath the buy settlement; and
  • arm’s size negotiation of the R&Ws, ideally together with some recourse towards the vendor for any breach thereof (e.g., with respect to losses under the retention).

The above listing is non-exhaustive. In essence, insurers welcome any deal trait that enhances the predictability of contingencies, authorized certainty or the chance that any materials contingencies have been recognized throughout due diligence.

Sellers anticipating bidders to acquire RWI ought to ensure that the elements that they’ll management are structured in a way that favours the availability of RWI at an affordable value (e.g., partaking top-notch advisers, deciding on an relevant legislation with a longtime physique of M&A case legislation that’s acquainted to the RWI carriers, getting ready transaction paperwork in the English language, conducting vendor’s due diligence and documenting a sturdy course of for disclosure of contingencies). As it’s, RWI carriers are already cautious on the foundation of elements that are typically out of the management of the events. Each market is completely different, and the widespread notion of larger political and financial volatility – together with widespread corruption scandals, which have a tendency to extend fears of fraud – might trigger RWI carriers to be extra conservative and improve costs in rising markets. Similarly, much less deal circulate and larger perceived uncertainty on the underlying relevant legislation of the R&Ws’ material additionally makes it more difficult to place a price ticket on unknown dangers. While RWI insurance policies have been carried out in a broad vary of industries throughout Latin America, not all nations are thought to be equal by RWI carriers. For instance, it seems that Brazil, Chile and Mexico have had larger ranges of RWI provider curiosity than different important jurisdictions, similar to Argentina, Colombia and Peru.

Relative advantages of RWI

Outlined under are some of the principal advantages that RWI brings to the desk for every of the events and the transaction as a complete.

Benefits to the transaction and each events

RWI presents an essential danger allocation resolution and can render important advantages to each purchaser and vendor and to the transaction as a complete, regardless of the sort of coverage in place (i.e., sell-side or buy-side) or the allocation of value thereof. The principal and most evident profit is that it aligns in any other case incompatible pursuits and expectations, permitting for a clear (or cleaner) exit of the vendor from the goal enterprise, whereas at the similar time affording purchaser safety towards unknown contingencies that might in any other case take a untimely important toll on the valuation of the goal, in the absence of recourse.

RWI additionally reduces transaction prices by expediting and simplifying the negotiation of the buy settlement between the events, notably with respect to the R&Ws, and by probably eliminating or significantly narrowing discussions on indemnity and escrow.

RWI also can profit each sellers and patrons in an M&A transaction with a number of sellers, the place sellers – whether or not as a matter of coverage or easy monetary wherewithal – don’t supply joint and a number of legal responsibility for indemnities. RWI obviates the have to pursue a number of events for various percentages of losses and permits for a single course of with the RWI provider. This is especially useful if some of the promoting entities are unaffiliated minority and passive traders who could also be reluctant to grant indemnification on the foundation of operational R&Ws negotiated by the controlling shareholder, with respect to underlying issues of which such minority or passive traders have restricted or no data or capability to regulate.

Benefits to the vendor

RWI eliminates or reduces the vendor’s monetary danger for losses arising out of breaches of R&Ws beneath the buy settlement. The vendor’s fee of return on funding at closing is maximised as a result of:

  • in the absence of recourse, the purchaser isn’t required to low cost the buy value on the foundation of contingencies that haven’t materialised and could be coated beneath the RWI coverage;
  • the vendor’s post-closing publicity is eradicated or considerably decreased; and
  • the want for a holdback or escrow dissipates, maximising the quantity of consideration really acquired by the vendor at closing. For occasion, based on SRS Acquiom’s 2020 Buy-side RWI deal phrases research, the common indemnity escrow quantity drops from 12.3 per cent of the buy value in offers with no recognized RWI, to 2.3 per cent of the buy value in offers with an recognized buy-side RWI.

As beforehand talked about, RWI permits promoting personal fairness funds, and different institutional traders reaching maturity and related milestones for return of capital to their traders, to liquidate their funding in the goal and distribute proceeds, with out pending indemnity obligations that might delay an in any other case clear fund wind-up and dissolution.

Finally, RWI generally is a highly effective device to facilitate offers with financially distressed sellers. Distressed sellers’ creditworthiness doesn’t present adequate assurances for efficient recourse. Also, such sellers seemingly have to obtain the proceeds of the transaction at closing to disburse them shortly thereafter to collectors or use them to cowl vital operational wants. RWI gives an answer for each of these points by eliminating or decreasing reliance on recourse towards the vendor and offering purchaser with the capability to have a look at the insurer for creditworthiness and liquidity dangers, as an alternative of the vendor.

Benefits to the purchaser

Since the purchaser appears to the RWI provider as an alternative of to the vendor for restoration in the coated areas, as famous above, RWI considerably reduces a purchaser’s creditworthiness danger, which might in any other case be largely depending on the identification and monetary wherewithal of the vendor.

RWI generally is a great tool for a purchaser coming into a Latin American marketplace for the first time. Such a purchaser typically retains a lot of the goal enterprise’ present administration in place after the closing and might construction the transaction in order that the vendor retains an possession stake, even when quickly, in the goal enterprise post-closing. Under these circumstances, the purchaser’s assertion of an indemnity declare may bitter its relationship with its new staff and accomplice. A buy-side RWI coverage may allow the purchaser to keep away from this awkward scenario, since the purchaser would make the declare to the RWI provider.

In a hotly contested public sale, a potential purchaser could make its bid stand out by easing the vendor’s indemnity obligations in reliance on a buy-side RWI coverage. This is particularly true in Latin American M&A as a result of not all bidders are prone to think about RWI, as RWI isn’t but as widespread and many bidders are unfamiliar with, and even skeptical of, the advantages of RWI.

If accomplished previous to signing, the RWI underwriting course of might improve the purchaser’s diligence efforts, as it might put the concentrate on and uncover sure dangers which will haven’t been in any other case recognized in diligence.

As beforehand talked about, RWI additionally simplifies the course of that the purchaser is required to endure to recoup losses incurred as a result of a breach of R&W, particularly in transactions that might in any other case have concerned recourse towards a number of sellers. In Latin American cross-border M&A transactions, the vendor or its property are sometimes positioned in jurisdictions (or a number of jurisdictions, together with in the occasion of a number of sellers) which have advanced international judgment enforcement guidelines, involving prolonged and pricey recognition proceedings. In the absence of RWI, the purchaser could be required to speculate important time and effort in acquiring recognition and enforcement of any judgment earlier than having the ability to recoup.

The intersection of RWI and the buy settlement

In some transactions, the buy settlement doesn’t embrace any references to the RWI, regardless of one of the events utilizing RWI. In such circumstances, it’s seemingly that the insured social gathering will independently receive the coverage and assume all prices thereof. However, though not strictly essential, there are specific provisions that the events ought to search to incorporate in the buy settlement in reference to the RWI.

If the insured social gathering has not obtained a binder of insurance coverage previous to signing, it ought to search to incorporate covenants in the buy settlement requiring the different social gathering to fairly cooperate and present help in the course of to acquire the RWI. As talked about above, if the purchaser has substantial leverage in the negotiations, it might try to incorporate a stand-alone situation to closing on really acquiring a RWI coverage, however such situation isn’t customary and might considerably diminish the standing of a potential purchaser’s bid in a aggressive public sale.

If the vendor has agreed to indemnification obligations in the absence of RWI protection and a binder of insurance coverage has not been entered as of the execution of the buy settlement, the vendor ought to search to incorporate covenants requiring the purchaser to make use of some degree of efforts to acquire the RWI.

In any occasion, the vendor is well-advised to incorporate provisions regarding the confidentiality of the data to be supplied to the insurer, and the dealing with thereof, together with the requirement that the provider enters right into a customary non-disclosure settlement or a joinder to the non-disclosure settlement executed by the purchaser in reference to the transaction.

If the events will share some or all of the prices of the RWI coverage (e.g., the premium or the dealer or underwriting charges), provisions and covenants ought to be included to that impact. For instance, if the purchaser will receive a buy-side RWI coverage however the vendor will share some of the prices thereof, the purchaser might search to incorporate such prices as transaction bills to be deducted from the buy value to be paid to the vendor at closing.

In the occasion that the vendor is granting recourse to the purchaser in the absence of protection beneath the RWI coverage, whether or not for issues under the retention or exceeding the protection restrict, upon protection being denied by the insurer or with respect to exclusions beneath the RWI coverage, the indemnification provisions ought to be revised accordingly to mirror any agreed-upon recourse hierarchy and the scope of any indemnification obligations of the vendor for issues not inside the scope of the RWI coverage. Areas of frequent debate between the events in the presence of RWI embrace whether or not the vendor ought to be liable to the purchaser for breaches of elementary representations or sure key areas excluded from the RWI coverage (e.g., bribery and corruption), as a result of the underlying topic issues are typically inside the vendor’s management and the monetary penalties for the purchaser upon a breach thereof are typically dire.

The negotiation of the scope of the R&Ws shouldn’t be closely impacted by the presence of RWI, apart from the incontrovertible fact that the vendor could also be extra amenable to broader R&Ws the place there isn’t any or restricted post-closing recourse towards the vendor in connection therewith. Nonetheless, the scope and high quality of the R&Ws in the presence of RWI tends to comply with market follow as a result of insurers will seemingly exclude protection for atypical R&Ws or supply to cowl broader R&Ws at a further value. Also, the vendor ought to be anticipated to proceed to watch out to not compromise closing certainty by agreeing to an excessively broad set of R&Ws and growing the danger that the agreed-upon customary for the ‘bring-down’ of the R&Ws at closing isn’t glad.

Other provisions that could be current in the buy settlement in reference to the RWI embrace clarifying language to the impact that survival provisions beneath the buy settlement don’t affect the RWI coverage interval; and in the presence of a buy-side RWI coverage, covenants requiring the purchaser to not receive a RWI coverage offering for subrogation rights towards the vendor apart from in the case of fraud, and requiring that the purchaser doesn’t conform to amendments to the RWI coverage that adversely have an effect on the vendor, together with with respect to subrogation rights.

The RWI coverage is usually self-contained as to the outlined phrases and different provisions that set off protection thereunder (apart from the coated R&Ws, that are contained in the buy settlement and included by reference), together with with respect to the definition of coated losses, occasions constituting a breach of R&W, data and different exclusions. However, in offers in which a buy-side RWI coverage is put in place in addition to indemnification obligations granted by the vendor, the RWI coverage could also be knowledgeable by the related provisions and outlined phrases in the buy settlement (e.g., the definition of ‘losses’). In these circumstances, the purchaser ought to be cautious to not settle for limitations to the related outlined phrases and provisions that it isn’t keen to just accept with regard to the RWI provider. The RWI coverage often follows the materiality scrape provisions in the buy settlement, for the function of figuring out whether or not there was a breach of a R&W and the extent of the losses incurred.


With its anticipated elevated prominence, it’s well timed for dealmakers with roles in the premier Latin American M&A transactions to brush up on RWI. As lengthy as carriers proceed to be keen to supply RWI at an accessible value, the present atmosphere of social unrest and political instability dealing with the globe and the area can incentivise the use of RWI, as a result of:

  • sellers can be in search of a clear exit (in specific personal fairness funds reaching maturity) and can be more and more reluctant to supply substantial recourse in the face of present uncertainty;
  • the quantity of distressed M&A transactions may improve, forcing patrons to hunt different sources of restoration; and
  • US-based insurers present an answer to creditworthiness and nation danger, notably in transactions involving native sellers.

However, Latin American dealmakers ought to proceed with warning and work with their RWI brokers as early as doable to verify if RWI is accessible to them at a suitable value beneath the particular circumstances. As the area continues to heat as much as the idea of fronting some prices for unknown dangers which will by no means materialise, RWI carriers are also being cautious as a result of underlying authorized uncertainty, market volatility, political and financial volatility and decreased deal-flow, which can proceed to drive up the value of RWI in the area in the quick time period.


Representations and Warranties Insurance in Latin American M&A: A Long-awaited Alternative in the Face of Current Challenges

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